Georgia is mountainous country located in the South Caucasus, with an area of 67,900 km2 (26,216 sq mi). The Likhi Range divides the country east and west. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range forms the northern border and the southern area of the country is bounded by the Lesser Caucasus Mountains. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range highest peak is Mount Shkhara at 5,068 metres.

Two major rivers in Georgia are the Rioni and the Mtkvari. The Krubera Cave is the deepest known cave in the world, at over 2,100 metres (7,021 ft).
Climate of Georgia

There are two main climatic zones, roughly corresponding to the eastern and western parts of the country. Much of western Georgia lies within the northern periphery of the humid subtropical zone with annual precipitation ranging from 1,000–4,000 mm uniformly distributed throughout the year. The climate of the region varies significantly with elevation. While much of the lowland areas of western Georgia are relatively warm throughout the year, the foothills and mountainous areas experience cool, wet summers and snowy winters.

Eastern Georgia has a transitional climate from humid subtropical to continental. The penetration of humid air masses from the Black Sea is often blocked by the Likhi and Meskheti mountain ranges. Annual precipitation is considerably less than that of western Georgia.


Georgia is home to about 5,601 species of animals, including 648 species of vertebrates. There are forests of sweet chestnut and Oriental beech with pontic rhododendron, cherry laurel and Colcic box and a variety of lianas. There are more than 6,500 species of fungi recorded. Fauna recorded are Brown bear, Roe deer, and Wild boar, red fox, and jackal. Birds include the Booted eagle, Eagle owl and Golden oriole. Amphibians inhabiting the park include Caucasian salamander, Caucasian toad, Eurasian mash frog and Caucasian viper.


Tourism is an increasingly significant part of the Georgian economy. In 2016, 2.7m tourists brought approximately US$2.16 billion to the country. Government figures show there are 103 resorts in the country, including more than 2,000 mineral springs and more than 12,000 historical and cultural monuments, four of which are recognised as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. These are Bagrati Cathedral in Kutaisi, Gelati Monastery, the historical monuments of Mtskheta and Upper Svaneti.

National Parks in Georgia

The Algeti National Park protects the easternmost limits of the Caucasian Spruce and Nordmann Fir.

The Kintrishi Protected Landscape preserves its unique flora and fauna and famous Colchian willow trees. Archaeological excavations revealed even older pre-Christian monuments in the areas.

Kolkheti National Park was established during 1998 and 1999 as part of Georgia’s Integrated Coastal Management Project.

Lagodekhi National Park preserves a variety of rare local flora and fauna and was originally protected in 1912, under the Russian Empire.

Mtirala National Park has pristine Colchic humid broad-leaved and mixed forests.

Tbilisi National Park was established in 1973.

The Tusheti National Park has rich biodiversity and aesthetic terrain, hamlets, old defence towers, cuisine, and folk culture.

Vashlovani National Park preserves its unique shallow forests.